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By NellyCook21/9 11:57Tue Sep 21 11:57:54 2021

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An investigation can be described as a comprehensive and methodological effort to obtain information. The business of investigations is about efficient amassing and dissemination of information. The entire purpose and product of an investigation is information.
There are two security-based categories of investigations; public law enforcement investigations and private investigations.
Public law enforcement investigations are investigations made by government agencies and law enforcement agents, such as the Police. They conduct investigations as they perform their duties of enforcing laws and keeping the public safe. The police works within the confines of the constitution and is restricted to criminal investigations. The goal of criminal investigations is to verify if a crime has been committed, determine who is responsible, as well as, assemble adequate evidence to present to a prosecutor so that a trial can be done.
Private investigations, on the other hand, are conducted by private citizens, who are trained investigators. Private investigators work for private security companies, corporations, individuals and groups. Their work is dictated by their clients’ needs. Although all private investigators have some sort of training, the skills level varies from simple guard activities to sophisticated corporate security management and cyber-crime investigation. Some public law enforcement officials become private investigators on retirement and bring a lot of investigative experience with them.
Both public law enforcement investigators and private investigators are responsible for investigation management. Investigation management is a process that includes; the organization and control of a set of interconnected events, collection and assessment of information, analysis of evaluated information, the drawing of hypothesis, drawing of conclusions, and finally, action is taken. Through out the entire process, information is the center of focus. Every investigation requires monitoring until the process is completed.
The types of private investigations include: insurance e.g. to investigate suspicious claims; corporate investigations e.g. counter espionage, employee investigations, internal and external thefts, financial investigations; civil and domestic cases e.g. infidelity, nursing home abuse, employment claims; skip tracing e.g. collections and asset investigations, missing persons, collateral recovery and repossession, escheat accounts and unclaimed money; cyber-investigations e.g. forensic computer examination, wireless network security, network intrusion, email tracing; criminal defense investigations; security such as safety protection, celebrity protection, hotel detectives, store detectives; legal investigations e.g. when hired by attorneys, as well as, political and discovery assignments.
Some of the methods used in private investigations include: surveillance e.g. covert video surveillance and photography, mobile surveillance, counter surveillance and counter stalking, covert video cameras – rental, sales and installation; phone calls, public records, interviews, undercover activity, computer searches.
Creativity, curiosity and imagination are necessary for successful results in investigation. There is a need for motivation and the ability to stay focused, as an investigation can be a protracted surveillance or a prolonged document review. Team work is also important, as sometimes an investigator can be assigned a partner. Assigning partners can aid in the investigation process as well as sustain the continuity of the process if an investigator leaves a case or is re-assigned elsewhere. Effective communication is critical as the investigator needs to be able to successfully transfer information within the organization, as well as, to the client.
Documentation is a key part of private investigation. Private investigation involves maintaining log-books and can involve maintaining case-logs and various reports.
There are various kinds of reports including customer accident report, employee accident report, external investigations report, and so on. This in turn underscores the need for an efficient information management system. Access to information and the ability to access information easily can be critical in an investigation. It is, therefore, necessary that information be stored in a logical manner, as well as in a format where it is easily retrievable.
A private investigator should have the training and skills to initialize and prioritize an investigation. Investigations are prioritized based on factors such as high-profile incidents where media or prominent people are involved, emotionally charged issues, organizational management interests, solvability factors’ review and consideration, as well as, important physical evidence. Investigative follow-ups can include things like progress report monitoring and presenting of reports to management when an investigation is over.
In conclusion, while private investigators are not constrained by certain constitutional restraints that apply to public law enforcement investigators, such as the Miranda warning prior to giving a statement, they are nevertheless subject to the laws of the country. They have to abide by the federal, state and local laws that apply to the profession. In addition, they also have to be mindful of other legal issues that may relate to the field and their client.
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